Weight loss test of sintered NdFeB (HAST, PCT)
Sintered neodymium iron boron permanent magnets are magnetic materials with the highest magnetic properties found so far, and are widely used in wind power generation, new energy vehicles, maglev trains, intelligent robots and other fields. The sintered NdFeB magnet adopts powder metallurgy technology, and the raw material contains highly active rare earth elements, which makes its corrosion resistance in high temperature and high humidity environments worse, which greatly limits its use in various complex working conditions. This makes the comprehensive performance of NdFeB magnets higher requirements in practical applications.
In 2019, China has compiled the national standard “Sintered NdFeB Weight Loss Test Method”, which is currently in the review stage and has not yet been implemented. Today, yueci will introduce the weight loss test of sintered NdFeB (also known as high temperature, high pressure and high humidity accelerated aging test) in conjunction with the draft of this test plan.
The weight loss test is used to test the corrosion resistance of the neodymium iron boron matrix. The sample is a magnet substrate without any protective layer. The test sample is exposed to high temperature and high pressure water vapor environment. Weight loss refers to the mass loss per unit surface area due to corrosion of the orientation surface of the magnet, and the unit is mg/cm2.
Hast test and PCT test
The weightlessness test can be carried out in the Hast mode and the PCT mode. Many people do not know the difference between the Hast test and the PCT test. Let us first introduce the difference between the two tests.
Different test conditions
PCT is the abbreviation of pressure cooker test, which refers to the high-pressure accelerated aging life test. It belongs to the saturated type. The humidity is 100% by default, and the temperature, humidity and pressure rise or fall at the same time. It is used to test the sealing performance and aging performance of magnetic material products.
Hast is an unsaturated type, temperature, humidity (70%~100%), pressure can be adjusted according to demand, can be used for high temperature and high humidity, high and low temperature cycle, double 95, high temperature, high humidity and high pressure test, also called aging test.
Different test equipment
Both the PCT test and the Hast test have special test equipment and cannot be mixed.
In addition to testing the corrosion resistance of the magnet substrate, the PCT test can also test the corrosion resistance of the finished NdFeB product (product after processing and surface coating). Whether it can be tested within a certain period of time (12h, 24h, 72h, etc.) It is the evaluation index to ensure that there is no corrosion on the surface of the sample.
Method of weightlessness test (manuscript submitted for review by national standard, recommended standard)
The weightlessness test has become the most direct reference index for evaluating the corrosion resistance and long-term stability of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets. It is widely used by mainstream NdFeB manufacturers and is recognized by customers.
For a long time, the weightlessness test method of sintered NdFeB permanent magnet has no corresponding national and industry standards. In the actual test process, most of the main test parameters such as temperature, humidity, and constant temperature time are mutually agreed with customers, especially the lack of specifications for important links such as the size of the style, the way of placing, and the surface treatment before the sample, resulting in a large amount of comparable test data Poor sex. The writing and implementation of national standards can well change the current chaotic situation.
Put the sintered neodymium iron boron magnet sample that has been accurately weighed and dimensioned into a high-pressure container. After the sample is tested for a certain period of time under the action of high temperature and high pressure water vapor, the surface crystal grains and the water vapor produce an electrochemical reaction, resulting in crystals Peel off, the surface layer is corroded and pulverized; after the test, the sample is taken out, the loose corrosives on the surface are removed, and then weighed. The mass loss (and weight loss) per unit magnetic orientation surface area is calculated according to the mass change of the sample before and after the test.
Shape: It is recommended to use the slicing method to process the sintered neodymium iron boron blank into squares. For those inconvenient processing into squares, it can be processed into cylinders by wire cutting. If the sample contains a protective layer, the protective layer should be removed by sanding.
Size: When conditions permit, the following standard size samples are recommended: square 12×12×8mm, cylinder 13.5×8mm, and the 8mm direction is the easy magnetization direction.
Surface cleaning: Use a dilute nitric acid solution to clean the samples. After machining the samples, you need to clean the surface of the oil stains (see the standard requirements for details).
Sample quantity and placement requirements: the same batch of samples should not be less than 3 pieces, and 5 pieces are appropriate. The easy magnetization direction of the sample should be in the horizontal direction, and the easy magnetization surface should not contact the sample frame or support. The distance between samples is not less than 10mm.
The test specifies three durations, which should be selected based on the corrosion resistance of the sample and customer requirements.
Tests have confirmed that most of the sintered NdFeB permanent magnet substrate samples under the HAST conditions at a temperature of 130°C and a relative humidity of 95%, the weight loss for 480 hours is close to zero, so the more severe 120°C saturation mode PCT conditions are used to evaluate the magnet substrate Weightlessness is more scientific and can significantly shorten the time required for evaluation.
In the weight loss test, once corrosion pits are formed on the surface of the sintered NdFeB permanent magnet sample, as the corrosion expands, after reaching a certain critical point, the corrosion weight loss caused by the flaking of the sample surface increases almost linearly with the increase of the test time. The critical point of weightlessness is about 5mg/cm2.
Source: China Permanent Magnet Manufacturer – www.rizinia.com