Export guide of rare earth permanent magnet materials
Rare earth permanent magnetic material is a kind of permanent magnetic material which is made of intermetallic compound formed by rare earth metal and transition metal. Rare earth permanent magnet material is the largest deep processing field of rare earth in the world, and it is also one of the most important application fields of rare earth. The consumption of rare earth accounts for more than 40% of the total output of rare earth. Since the 1960s, the development of rare earth permanent magnet material industry has made great progress, from the first generation of 1:5 samarium cobalt alloy (RECo5), the second generation of 2:17 rare earth cobalt alloy (RE2TM17) to the third generation of 2:14:1 neodymium iron boron (NdFeB), cerium rich neodymium iron boron, etc. As an important rare earth functional material, rare earth permanent magnet material has excellent magnetic properties, which can not only greatly improve the work efficiency of magnetic components in high-tech industry, but also has small volume and light weight. In recent years, the application field has expanded from the original aviation, aerospace, navigation, weapons and other defense and military industries to the civilian fields such as instruments, meters, energy and transportation, medical equipment, electronic power, communication and so on.
Because China is rich in rare earth resources, and has advanced rare earth smelting separation technology, it has the inherent advantages of rare earth permanent magnet material production. After more than 30 years of development, China’s domestic rare earth permanent magnet industry has formed a complete industrial system. At present, China is the world’s largest producer, supplier and consumer of rare earth permanent magnet materials. It is very important for the development of China’s rare earth industry to expand the application of rare earth permanent magnet materials, expand the export of related products, change the resource advantage into technical advantage and then into economic advantage.
The purpose of this study is to help more domestic rare earth permanent magnet production and trading enterprises to understand the domestic and international market situation, export process and requirements, differences in domestic and international technical standards, patent restrictions, etc. of rare earth permanent magnet products, so as to establish a guide for the export of China’s rare earth permanent magnet products, Promote international trade of related products.
Scope of application
Table of Contents
- Scope of application
- Basic situation of production and export
Differences between domestic and foreign standards
- Differences between domestic and international standards
- Technical index requirements of rare earth permanent magnet materials
- American standards
- EU standards
- Matters needing attention in exporting rare earth permanent magnet materials to the United States
Precautions for export of rare earth permanent magnet materials to EU countries
- Precautions for goods arriving at EU customs border
- EU import declaration
- Time limit for declaration and acceptance
- EU certification system
- Precautions for export of rare earth permanent magnet materials to Japan
- Precautions for export to South Korea
- Suggestions to meet the technical requirements of the target market
This guide is applicable to rare earth permanent magnet materials produced by domestic enterprises and mainly used for export, including NdFeB permanent magnet materials (sintered NdFeB permanent magnet and bonded NdFeB permanent magnet materials) and SmCo permanent magnet materials.
The main target markets of the products included in this guide include the United States in North America, Germany, Italy and Belgium in Europe, Japan and South Korea in Asia, etc. When these products are exported to other countries and regions, you can also refer to this guide.
Basic situation of production and export
Basic information of the industry
After more than 30 years of development, the domestic rare earth permanent magnet industry has formed a complete industrial system. 2001-2007 is the golden period of industry development. With the rapid development of global NdFeB industry and continuous breakthrough of enterprise technology, the international production capacity is gradually transferred to China in view of the abundant supply of rare earth raw materials and low manufacturing cost in China. From 2008 to 2009, the growth of rare earth magnetic materials industry slowed down gradually due to the slowdown of downstream demand growth and the international financial crisis. Around 2011, the downstream demand improved and the price of rare earth soared, which led to a substantial increase in the price of NdFeB. However, the soaring price of rare earth also makes NdFeB magnetic material lose its price advantage in some fields. Downstream enterprises re adopt ferrite magnetic material to replace the soaring price of rare earth magnet, which interferes with the normal development of the industry. After the sharp rise and fall of rare earth prices, although the domestic production capacity is still increasing, the overall macroeconomic downturn and the overall cost are rising, and the development of the industry has entered a period of deep adjustment. On the whole, China’s rare earth permanent magnet industry has made continuous progress with the update of production technology and equipment, and the output, types and performance of products have been continuously improved. At present, the enterprises of rare earth permanent magnet materials in China are mainly concentrated in Beijing and Tianjin, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Jiangxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, which have become the main rare earth permanent magnet industry bases in China. Among the rare earth permanent magnetic materials, NdFeB is the most representative and the largest consumption. Among them, sintered NdFeB is the most widely used rare earth permanent magnetic material, accounting for about 90% of the global output of rare earth permanent magnetic materials. According to the data of China Rare Earth Industry Association, in 2019, the output of sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials in China will reach 170000 tons, with a year-on-year increase of 9.7%; The output of bonded NdFeB was 7900 tons, up 5% year on year; The output of SmCo magnets was 2400 tons, up 4% year on year. China has listed the rare earth permanent magnet industry as a high-tech industry, and governments at all levels have issued relevant policies to encourage the development of rare earth permanent magnet industry.
Basic situation of export
Name and code of export commodities
At present, China Customs classifies rare earth permanent magnet related products into four statistical categories:
1) Quick setting permanent magnet
- Commodity number: 72029911
- Commodity number: 72029912
3) Other NdFeB alloys
- Commodity number: 72029919
4) Rare earth permanent magnet and articles for permanent magnet preparation after magnetization
- Commodity number: 85051110
Statistical analysis on export of rare earth permanent magnet materials
With the continuous improvement of the production technology level of rare earth permanent magnet materials in China, the performance of the products is also gradually improved. The rare earth permanent magnet products have covered all the application fields of high, medium and low end. From the customs classification of rare earth permanent magnet products, we can see that it includes the whole process products from quick setting sheet, hydrogen embrittlement magnetic powder, permanent magnet material blank to permanent magnet alloy. Table 1 to table 5 show the export quantity of rare earth permanent magnet products from 2017 to 2019 respectively, and table 6 shows the export quantity of rare earth permanent magnet products to trading partner countries in the same period. The data source is the General Administration of Customs of China.
Table 1 Export situation of quick setting permanent magnet
|Export volume (ton)||277||746||183|
|Export volume (100 million yuan)||0.4834||1.3676||0.3707|
Table 2 Export of NdFeB magnetic powder
|Export volume (ton)||5501||6962||4982|
|Export volume (100 million yuan)||9.6239||12.269||8.5348|
Table 3 Export of other NdFeB alloys
|Export volume (ton)||474||472||308|
|Export volume (100 million yuan)||0.7143||0.7909||0.4972|
Table 4 Export situation of rare earth permanent magnets and articles prepared for permanent magnets after magnetization
|Export volume (ton)||29903||32696||35270|
|Export volume (100 million yuan)||99.407||111||113|
Table 5 Total export volume of rare earth permanent magnet materials
|Export volume (ton)||36155||40876||40743||6.37%|
|Export volume (100 million yuan)||110.23||125.76||122.4||5.71%|
Table 6 Export volume of rare earth permanent magnet products from China to major trading partners unit: tons
|Trading partners||2017||2018||2019||Annual increase|
|the republic of korea||3041||3206||3147||1.79%|
|Hong Kong, China||1770||1139||700||-37.10%|
It can be seen from table 3 that the total amount of rare earth permanent magnet products from 017 to 2019 shows a steady upward trend, with an average annual increase of 6.37% and 5.71% respectively. In all kinds of export products, rare earth permanent magnets account for the vast majority of the total, and the annual growth trend is relatively stable. In 2019, the export volume of China’s rare earth permanent magnet products is about 40700 tons, with a year-on-year increase of 3.71%. The export volume is 12.240 billion yuan, with a year-on-year decrease of 2.85%. The average export price is 300.74 yuan / kg, with a year-on-year decrease of 2.85%. In general, the export market of rare earth permanent magnet products is in a growth trend, but the export volume of rare earth permanent magnet products will rise and the export volume will decline in 2019. It can be seen that the export market competition of rare earth permanent magnet materials is relatively fierce, and the export price will be squeezed to a certain extent. From the export situation to major trading partners, a large number of rare earth permanent magnet products of our country are exported to Europe, the United States and East Asia, most of which are developed countries with high technology level. The top three are Germany (6687 tons, accounting for 18.96%), the United States (4593 tons, accounting for 13.02%) and South Korea (31483 tons, accounting for 8.93%), It is estimated that China’s export of rare earth permanent magnet products are mainly assembled in high-end downstream applications (such as new energy vehicles, wind turbines, etc.). Among the trading partners, the demand of Germany, the United States, Japan and Denmark has increased significantly in recent years. With the development of global clean energy, the demand of new energy vehicles in the world will increase greatly, and the main automobile producing countries such as Germany, the United States, Japan and South Korea will still be the main consumption countries of rare earth permanent magnet materials. It is also worth noting that the president of the United States signed the John S. McCain Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for fiscal year 2019. The bill prohibits the U.S. Department of defense from purchasing rare earth permanent magnet materials from non allies such as China, Russia, North Korea and Iran. This law will restrict the export of China’s rare earth permanent magnet materials to the United States.
General export trade process
The common export process of rare earth permanent magnet materials in China is generally divided into three stages: preparation before transaction, transaction negotiation and contract performance. The preparation stage before the negotiation is the guarantee for the smooth progress of the negotiation and the basis for the performance of the contract. The negotiation is the key stage for reaching an agreement and determining the rights, obligations and responsibilities of both parties; Performance of the contract means that the buyer and the seller perform their rights and obligations in accordance with the terms of the contract.
Before the beginning of trade, the supplier generally needs to pass the supplier audit procedures of the demander. The audit contents can include whether the supplier has passed the enterprise quality management, environmental management, waste disposal, product traceability, social responsibility and other certification (ISO9000 system certification, ISO14000 system certification, ISO18000 system certification, etc.). The supplier who has passed the audit shall first enter into the “supplier list” of the demander, and the Demander shall select the possibly suitable supplier (usually more than one) from the “supplier list” for quality evaluation, price comparison, negotiation and agreement before signing the contract. The first contact between the supplier and the demander, the demander will usually bear the cost of supplier audit, usually the first purchase of the product quantity is not too large, follow-up with the deepening of bilateral cooperation will gradually increase the purchase volume.
However, it should be noted that in the process of supplier audit, the demander wants to know many aspects of the supplier, including the important trade secrets such as the element information, process flow and production cost of the supplier’s products. In this process, the supplier is often at a disadvantage, but still pay attention to protect the core business and technical secrets to avoid economic and technical losses.
After the export agreement is reached, the export of rare earth permanent magnet products needs to meet the standards of packaging, storage, land transportation, sea transportation, import and export customs declaration and inspection. It is necessary for NdFeB production enterprises and trading companies to establish a corresponding system management system in order to achieve the goals of high organization efficiency, high work quality and low cost.
Export characteristics and precautions
(1) No export tariff, no quota
Nd-Fe-B alloy quick setting permanent magnet materials will be classified as “other ferroalloys” in the tariff before 2010, and 20% export tariff will be levied. In view of the fact that the product is quite different from ordinary ferroalloy in production process, product performance and application, the product is magnetized and made into permanent magnet after processing, which is mainly used in computer, communication products, electronic equipment and other high-tech fields. In order to support the development of China’s high-performance permanent magnet industry and further refine the tariff classification of NdFeB alloy permanent magnet materials, the tariff item of “NdFeB alloy quick setting permanent magnet” was added in the tariff implementation plan in 2010, and its 20% export tariff was cancelled. At present, there is no tariff or export quota for the four kinds of rare earth permanent magnet materials.
(2) Fast supply, flexible to meet the requirements of different orders
Due to the large output of rare earth permanent magnet enterprises in China and the large number of orders, in order to meet the demander’s demand for different shapes of magnets, the production enterprises generally choose to use molds according to categories for production, and then meet the demander’s dimensional needs through cutting and grinding. The massive, chip like or sludge like leftover materials produced in the process will be recycled for processing. In addition, for all kinds of rare earth permanent magnets that have reached the service life, they will also be recycled to extract high-value rare earth elements for re production and use, which can also meet the needs of some users to use renewable resources to produce rare earth permanent magnet products. The recycling mode of rare earth permanent magnet materials in China reduces the production cost and enhances the competitiveness of Chinese enterprises in the international market to a certain extent.
(3) There is a phenomenon of competitive export and low price
As mentioned in the foreword, China has unique rare earth resource advantages in developing rare earth permanent magnet materials, which promotes the rapid development of China’s rare earth permanent magnet material industry in recent years. Relying on the advantages of low cost and low pricing, China has occupied most of the market share in the world, but it also leads to a certain degree of overcapacity, forming a buyer’s market. In this market background, in the process of competitive selling in the international market, the buyers of rare earth permanent magnet materials enterprises in China have the situation of price reduction by comparison, and there are also competitive situations between domestic enterprises, which eventually leads to the low transaction price, or even lower than the cost price, resulting in the loss of enterprise profits.
(4) Patent restriction
As Hitachi metal has applied for NdFeB patent in the United States, Chinese enterprises can export their products to the U.S. market only if they have the patent authorization. At present, eight enterprises have obtained the patent license of sintered NdFeB from Hitachi metal and magkun magnetic covering the world. The specific situation is as follows: Zhongke Sanhuan obtained the patent license in May 1993; Beijing Jingci qiangmi Co., Ltd. obtained patent license in March 2000; Beijing yinnajinke obtained patent license in September 2000; Ningbo Yunsheng obtained patent license in March 2001; In March 2003, Antai technology inherited the patent license obtained by Taiwan Haien metal company in May 2000; Zhenghai magnetic material Co., Ltd., Ningbo Jinji qiangmi Co., Ltd. and Anhui earth bear Co., Ltd. obtained patent license in May 2013. Hitachi Metals uses the core patent to block the patent in the field of sintered NdFeB, and requires that enterprises without its authorization shall not produce and sell sintered NdFeB, resulting in a large number of Chinese enterprises unable to export sintered NdFeB. Therefore, Chinese enterprises without patent authorization can produce and sell sintered NdFeB in China, but cannot sell it abroad.
Differences between domestic and foreign standards
At present, the international standard of rare earth permanent magnetic materials is formulated by the world standardization organization IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), namely: iec60404-8-1-2015 “magnetic materials. Part 8-1: Specifications for individual materials. Hard magnetic materials”. In hard magnetic materials, there are three kinds of hard magnetic materials: sintered cemented carbide, sintered hard ceramics and bonded hard magnetic materials. Sintered NdFeB and sintered SmCo permanent magnetic materials are classified as sintered cemented carbide, while bonded NdFeB and bonded SmCo permanent magnetic materials are classified as bonded hard magnetic materials.
Chinese standards are formulated according to the composition and production process of different permanent magnet materials. For samarium cobalt permanent magnetic materials of the first and second generation, the industry standards XB / t502-2007 “samarium cobalt 1-5 type permanent magnetic alloy powder” and XB / t507-2009 “2:17 type samarium cobalt permanent magnetic materials” are formulated to standardize samarium cobalt permanent magnetic materials. After the third generation of rare earth permanent magnet material NdFeB came out, China formulated the national standard for sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials in 1992. After several revisions, the current implementation of GB / t13560-2017 sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials is as follows. In addition, China has also developed a series of relevant standards for rare earth permanent magnet materials, such as bonded NdFeB permanent magnet materials (GB / t18880-2012) and NdFeB quick setting sheet alloy (GB / t29655-2013). In recent years, with new rare earth permanent magnet materials such as “cerium rich magnet” and “grain boundary diffusion magnet” being put into production, China has begun to develop more new magnetic material standards.
Differences between domestic and international standards
Packaging requirements of rare earth permanent magnet materials
At present, IEC 60404-8-1-2015 “magnetic materials Part 8-1: single material specification for hard magnetic materials” does not put forward specific requirements for the packaging of rare earth permanent magnetic materials, and the relevant packaging requirements are generally determined by the supplier and the demander through negotiation in international transactions. The packaging design should meet the requirements of moisture-proof, shockproof and anti-corrosion, so as to ensure that the products will not be damaged during normal transportation and handling. At present, the exported rare earth permanent magnet materials are mainly packed in plastic bags, which are filled with shock proof materials and then vacuumed or filled with inert gas; Generally, cartons or plastic cases are used for outer packaging, and shockproof materials should be filled around the inner part of the outer packaging to ensure that the products will not bump or be damaged during transportation.
Chinese national standard GB39176-2020 “packaging, marking, transportation and storage of rare earth products” puts forward specific requirements: for rare earth permanent magnet materials, plastic bags should be used for inner packaging according to the properties and characteristics of products. The products that need to take anti-oxidation measures should be vacuum packed first and then packed with shockproof materials. The outer packing should be made of cartons, wooden cases or iron barrels to ensure that they will not be damaged during proper transportation and storage.
Transportation requirements of rare earth permanent magnet materials
IEC 60404-8-1-2015 “magnetic materials – Part 8-1: Specification for individual materials – hard magnetic materials” has a brief description of the transportation status of permanent magnetic materials: the products can be transported when they are magnetized, not magnetized or installed in the circuit. In the transportation mode of China’s rare earth permanent magnet materials export, it is mainly by sea, and a small amount of them are transported by air or land. During the sea transportation, attention should be paid to the moisture and corrosion protection of the products. In case of air transportation, attention should be paid to the use of magnetic insulation packaging.
The Chinese national standard GB39176-2020 “packaging, marking, transportation and storage of rare earth products” also requires the carriage, cabin and container of rare earth permanent magnet products to be kept clean, dry and pollution-free; It is not allowed to transport the products in the same carriage (cabin) with corrosive chemicals and moist materials; When the product is transferred at the station or wharf or unloaded at the terminal, proper loading and unloading methods should be adopted to prevent package damage and product collision.
Technical index requirements of rare earth permanent magnet materials
The common feature of international standards and other national standards related to rare earth permanent magnet materials is that the testing range is usually for the performance testing of all hard magnetic materials. Whether it is ASTM standards or American and Japanese standards, the classification and testing of magnetic materials are basically consistent with IEC standards, which regulate the main magnetic properties of samarium cobalt magnets and rare earth iron boron magnets. At the same time, the standard framework of rare earth permanent magnet products in China, Japan, the United States and other countries are based on IEC series standards, or to some extent, international standards are quoted. However, in the field of international standards for rare earth permanent magnet materials, no standards for rare earth permanent magnet materials for any specific application fields have been established, and no brand has been specified in the standards for special requirements in specific fields. The main reason may be that the performance requirements of magnetic materials are often crossed among various application fields, and it is difficult to clearly define the performance requirements through standards.
Comparison of main magnetic properties
There is no corresponding brand between Chinese standard and international and foreign standards. The level of intrinsic coercivity (Hcj) in Chinese standard is used to divide the brand categories. Therefore, this paper makes a comparative analysis of the brands in Chinese standard and those with similar intrinsic coercivity in international and foreign standards.
(1) Comparison of standard differences of NdFeB permanent magnet materials
In iec60404-8-1-2015 international standard, the classification code of NdFeB permanent magnetic materials is R7, which is divided into sintered NdFeB permanent magnetic materials and bonded NdFeB permanent magnetic materials. Among them, there are 16 brands of sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials; There are 12 brands of bonded Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet materials. According to the preparation methods, there are 9 brands of injection molding and 3 brands of compression molding. China GB / t13560-2017 “sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic materials” standard determines 51 brands; According to GB / t18880-2012 bonded NdFeB permanent magnetic materials, there are 15 brands, including 8 for molding and 7 for injection molding. In GB / t13560-2017 sintered NdFeB permanent magnetic materials, China divides sintered NdFeB permanent magnetic materials into seven categories according to the intrinsic coercivity: low coercivity n, medium coercivity m, high coercivity h, ultra-high coercivity sh, ultra-high coercivity uh, extremely high coercivity eh, and extremely high coercivity th, with a total of 51 brands.
|Neodymium Material Type||Maximum Operating Temp||Curie Temp|
|N (N35–N52)||176°F (80°C)||590°F (310°C)|
|NM (N35M-N52M)||212°F (100°C)||644°F (340°C)|
|NH (N33H-N52H)||248°F (120°C)||644°F (340°C)|
|NSH (N30SH-N50SH)||302°F (150°C)||644°F (340°C)|
|NUH (N28UH-N48UH)||356°F (180°C)||662°F (350°C)|
|NEH (N28EH-N48EH)||392°F (200°C)||662°F (350°C)|
|NAH (N28AH-N35AH)||428°F (220°C)||662°F (350°C)|
According to the analysis of product attributes, the requirement of intrinsic coercivity in the international standard for permanent magnet materials ranges from 900ka / m to 2400ka / m, and the requirement of intrinsic coercivity in GB / t13560-2017 sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials ranges from 875ka / m to 2786ka / m. In terms of this technical index, the scope of China’s national standards has fully covered the scope required by international standards, and because more brands are set up in GB / t13560-2017, the gradient of technical indexes between brands is smoother, which can meet various needs in trade. Compared with the magnetic properties of high-grade products, the corresponding international standards set a total of 7 brands, while the Chinese national standards set a total of 19 brands of ultra-high coercivity uh, ultra-high coercivity EH and ultra-high coercivity th. While the intrinsic coercivity is higher than the international standards, the maximum magnetic energy product parameters of Chinese national standards are generally higher than the international standards, The magnetic properties are generally higher than the international standards.
From the way of brand representation of bonded NdFeB permanent magnet materials, IEC international standard mainly uses character representation. The maximum magnetic energy product and intrinsic coercivity of materials can be seen from the character representation of brand. Chinese national standard GB / t18880-2012 “bonded NdFeB permanent magnetic materials” has digital standards and symbols, which can not only meet the needs of the industry, but also clearly indicate the magnetic properties.
Table 12 Performance comparison between iec60404-8-1:2015 and GB / t18880-2012
|Brand||Standard||（BH） kJ/m3||Br T||HcB kA/m||HcJ、 kA/m||Preparation method|
|REFeB 63/64p||International standard||63||630||360||640||Compression molding|
|REFeB 53/95p||International standard||53||560||350||950|
|REFeB 82/68p||International standard||82||700||500||680|
|REFeB 45/70p||International standard||45||510||350||700||Injection molding|
|REFeB 50/70p||International standard||50||550||380||700|
|REFeB 72/64p||International standard||72||650||370||640|
According to the domestic and foreign standard magnetic property settings in Table 12, among the brands with similar maximum magnetic energy product, the requirements of China’s national standards for remanence (BR) and intrinsic coercivity (Hcj) have completely covered and exceeded the requirements of international standards. In addition, according to the characteristics of our country, low coercivity and high remanence brands are set up, which can meet the needs of the international market.
(2) Comparison of standard differences of SmCo permanent magnet materials
According to iec60404-8-1-2015, NdFeB permanent magnetic materials are classified as R5, which is divided into sintered SmCo permanent magnetic materials and bonded SmCo permanent magnetic materials. Among them, there are 12 brands of sintered SmCo permanent magnetic materials, including 5 1:5 SmCo permanent magnetic materials and 7 2:17 SmCo permanent magnetic materials; There are 8 brands of SmCo bonded permanent magnetic materials. There are two industry standards XB / t502-2007 “SmCo 1:5 permanent magnet alloy powder” and XB / t507-2009 “2:17 SmCo permanent magnet materials”, in which there are 6 brands of 1:5 SmCo permanent magnet materials and 15 brands of 2:17 SmCo permanent magnet materials. Due to the small industry and low market demand, there is no relevant standard for SmCo bonded permanent magnet materials in China. In terms of brand setting, the number of brands in China is more, which can meet the demand of trade. In terms of technical content, a series of brands with low temperature coefficient are set for 2:17 samarium cobalt permanent magnet materials. The remanence temperature coefficient is required to be – 0.02 ~ 0.02% / K, which is obviously different from – 0.04% / K specified in international standards. But for the 1:5 samarium cobalt permanent magnet material. In China’s industry standard, because it is a specific powder material, only the element content is required, and no specific magnetic properties are required. Due to the limited application of SmCo magnets in recent years and the small number of manufacturers, the standard has not been revised.
Compared with the technical parameters of 2:17 SmCo permanent magnetic materials at home and abroad, the required range of intrinsic coercivity in international standard is 700ka / m-1600ka / m, the required range of maximum magnetic energy product is 120kj / m3-200kj / m3, and the required range of intrinsic coercivity in XB / t507-2009 2:17 SmCo permanent magnetic materials is 716ka / m-1990ka / m, and most brands are higher than 1592ka / m, The required range of maximum magnetic energy product is 127kj / m3-238kj / m3. It can be seen that in terms of magnetic properties, the requirements of China’s industry standards can cover the requirements of international standards, and some indicators have exceeded the technical indicators of international standards. Table 13 compares the domestic and foreign standard technical indexes of similar brands. It can be seen that there are differences between Chinese and foreign similar brands in the comparison of magnetic properties, and there are obvious advantages in the setting of intrinsic coercivity.
Table 13 Performance comparison between iec60404-8-1:2015 and XB / t507-2009
|Brand||Standard||（BH） kJ/m3||Br T||HcB kA/m||HcJ kA/m||Material type|
|RE2Co17 160/70||International standard||160||940||600||700||217|
|SG 160/160||Industry standard||159±16||900||637||1592|
|RE2Co17 180/150||International standard||180||1000||660||1500|
|SG 175/160||Industry standard||175±16||950||653||1592|
|RE2Co17 200/150||International standard||200||1050||700||1500|
|SG 207/160||Industry standard||207±16||1020||716||1592|
(3) Differences in dimensional deviations
In both IEC standard and Chinese standard, special emphasis is laid on the terms determined by both the supplier and the demander through negotiation, which is determined by the application characteristics of rare earth permanent magnet materials. In the latest revision of international standard, the requirement of dimension deviation of rare earth permanent magnet material is deleted. However, the basic dimension requirement of NdFeB permanent magnet material is still put forward in Chinese standard. In the aspect of dimension deviation, our national standard is obviously more comprehensive than international standard.
Analysis of test method standard differences
For the traditional testing methods of magnetic properties, IEC standard framework has been used at home and abroad, and a relatively mature standard system has been formed. IEC 60404-5:2003 “magnetic materials Part 5: measurement methods of magnetic properties of permanent magnetic (hard magnetic) materials” is adopted in GB / T321 “magnetic test methods of permanent magnetic (hard magnetic) materials” in China.
As for the testing methods of rare earth permanent magnet materials, EC / tr62518:200 “stability of magnetic properties of rare earth permanent magnet materials at elevated temperature” is the only relevant ISO technical report. In contrast, dozens of national and industrial standards have been published in China, including the determination of various elements in rare earth permanent magnet materials, the determination of magnetic flux temperature characteristics, the determination of bending strength and fracture toughness, and several related method standards are in the process of development. Another important point is that China has developed “NdFeB scrap”
The series standards of “chemical analysis method” play an important role in the recovery of valuable elements in NdFeB waste.
As early as 1964, the United States issued a permanent magnet product standard “MMPA standard oioo Standard Specification for permanent magnet materials”, and in 2015, it revised the previous version according to the relevant international standards of permanent magnet materials issued by IEC, and released “MMPA standard no.0100-00 Standard Specification for permanent magnet materials”, Among them, the magnetic properties, thermodynamic properties, physical and mechanical properties of rare earth permanent magnetic materials have made detailed technical requirements.
In addition, ASTM, the oldest and largest non-profit standard academic group in the United States, also issued two standards directly related to SmCo alloy and sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials, namely ASTM a1102-16 Standard Specification for sintered SmCo permanent magnet materials and ASTM a1101-16 Standard Specification for sintered fully dense NdFeB permanent magnet materials. In addition to the detection of magnetic properties, ASTM has also established ASTM a1071 / a1071m-11 (2015) “standard test method for evaluating wet hot corrosion resistance of permanent magnetic alloys” and standard test method for measuring the resistance between insulating coatings.
|Coating Type||Overall Thickness||Salt Spray Test||Pressure Cooker Test|
|Ni-Cu-Ni (Nickel)||15-21 μm||24 hours||48 hours|
|NiCu + Black Nickel||15-21 μm||24 hours||48 hours|
|NiCuNi + Epoxy||20-28 μm||48 hours||72 hours|
|NiCuNi + Gold||16-23 μm||36 hours||72 hours|
|NiCuNi + Silver||16-23 μm||24 hours||48 hours|
|Zinc||7-15 μm||12 hours||24 hours|
MMPA standard NO.0100-00 Standard Specification for permanent magnet materials is the same as the classification of rare earth permanent magnet materials in China. The rare earth permanent magnet materials are divided into three categories: NdFeB permanent magnet materials, 1:5 SmCo permanent magnet materials and 2:17 SmCo permanent magnet materials. Among them, there are 19 grades for NdFeB permanent magnet materials, 1: 5 SmCo permanent magnet materials with 5 brands, 2:17 SmCo permanent magnet materials with 7 brands. In terms of main magnetic properties, MMPA standard of the United States, like IEC 60404-8-1 and Chinese national standard GB / t13560-2017, also puts forward requirements for maximum magnetic energy product (BH) max, remanence BR, intrinsic coercivity Hcj and magnetic induction coercivity HCB, and distinguishes brands according to intrinsic coercivity Hcj.
For NdFeB permanent magnet materials, the American MMPA standard is more detailed than the International Standard IEC 60404-8-1, but the American MMPA standard does not specify the bonded NdFeB permanent magnet materials. Compared with the national standard of China, the MMPA standard of the United States is not as good as the national standard GB / t13560-2017 in the number of brands, but it is not inferior in the main magnetic performance index requirements.
The maximum magnetic energy product (BH) max is required to span 190kj / m3 ~ 400kj / m3 in MMPA standard of USA, and 207kj / m3 ~ 422kj / m3 in national standard of China; The intrinsic coercivity Hcj is required to span 880ka / M ~ 3260ka / m in American MMPA standard, and 1035ka / M ~ 2786ka / m in Chinese national standard. It can be seen that the American Standard has a larger range of requirements for intrinsic coercivity, which is an important index of the main magnetic properties, and the upper limit of the requirements is obviously superior to the national standard of our country.
For 2:17 SmCo permanent magnet materials, China’s XB / t507-2009 “2:17 SmCo permanent magnet materials” industry standard has set up 15 product brands, which has advantages over 7 brands of MMPA standard in the United States. In terms of main magnetic properties, the maximum magnetic energy product (BH) max required by the MMPA standard of the United States ranges from 190kj / m3 to 240kj / m3, while the industrial standard of our country ranges from 127kj / m3 to 238kj / m3; American MMPA standard requires that the index span of intrinsic coercivity Hcj is 560ka / M ~ 2070ka / m, while Chinese industry standard requires 716ka / M ~ 1990ka / m.
From the point of view of the physical performance requirements of products, the MMPA standard of the United States puts forward the requirements for the important properties such as dimensional deviation, surface roughness, density, tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, resistivity, Curie temperature, maximum service temperature, etc. The national and industrial standards of our country also regulate the above physical properties, and the setting of parameters is basically consistent with the MMPA standard of the United States. In addition, the national and industrial standards also require Vickers hardness, Young’s modulus, bending strength and other physical properties.
To sum up, China’s national and industrial standards have more detailed requirements on the brand classification and physical properties of rare earth permanent magnet materials, but there is no advantage compared with the MMPA standard of the United States in the main magnetic properties. The MMPA standard of the United States has higher requirements on the upper limit of the intrinsic coercivity Hcj, which is an important performance index. China’s national and industrial standards are still worth learning.
CENELEC, cen and their joint organization CEN / CENELEC are the most important standard setting bodies in Europe. CENELEC was founded in 1976 in Brussels, Belgium. It was formed by the merger of two early institutions. Its purpose is to coordinate the electrotechnical standards issued by the standards bodies of the European countries concerned and eliminate the technical barriers in trade. CENELEC is a member of the national committees of 12 member states of the European Community and 7 Member States of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA). Except Iceland and Luxembourg, the other 17 countries are members of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The European Commission for Standardization (CEN) was established in Paris, France in 1961. Since 1971, cen moved to Brussels and later worked with CENELEC. In terms of business scope, CENELEC is in charge of all fields of electrical technology, while CEN is in charge of other fields. Its member states are the same as those of CENELEC. Except Luxembourg, the other 18 countries are members of the international organization for Standardization (ISO).
The European Commission for electrical Standardization (CENELEC) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) have carried out close cooperation after signing the agreement in Frankfurt. According to the agreement, the European and international markets should be based on international standards as far as possible. In 2015 (CLC / sr68), iec60404-8-1-2015 “magnetic materials – Part 8-1: Specifications for individual materials – hard magnetic materials” was transformed into the standard of European Union Electrotechnical Standards Committee, No. en 60404-8-1:2015, and its content is consistent with iec60404-8-1-2015. In addition, (CLC / sr68) has also transformed other IEC hard magnetic material classification and testing standards related to rare earth permanent magnetic materials, and its standard architecture is consistent with IEC / TC68.
Matters needing attention in exporting rare earth permanent magnet materials to the United States
Us customs import notes
Importer safety declaration and carrier additional requirements 10 + 2 rule
According to the U.S. Importer Security Declaration rules, except for foreign transit goods, all rare earth permanent magnet materials related goods must submit the importer security declaration to the U.S. Customs at least 24 hours before they are loaded on ships bound for the United States. However, for transit goods, the shipping company usually does not decide to ship until the last minute, so such goods can be declared at any time before loading. In addition, importers and their agents must transmit import security declaration forms through the Customs approved electronic data interchange system, namely automated Broker Interface and vessel automated manifest system.
Unless a special exemption is granted and all the goods carried are foreign transit goods or goods exported or transported to other regions immediately after entering the port, the importer must submit an import safety declaration (ISF) and provide the following 10 items of information about the goods shipped. The manufacturer (or supplier), country of origin, and harmonized tariff system number of the commodity must be listed in the declaration form.
- Importer record number / foreign trade zone identification number
- Consignee No
- Manufacturer (or supplier)
- Country of origin
- Harmonized Tariff System numbering
- Container loading place
- Container carrier (loader)
The importer must declare the above information to the U.S. Customs 24 hours before the arrival of the container at the U.S. port (or 24 hours before the arrival of the container at a foreign port, and the voyage from the port to the nearest U.S. port does not take 24 hours).
The U.S. authorities will handle the interpretation of four items flexibly, including manufacturer (or supplier), receiver, country of origin and harmonized tariff system number. After obtaining clearer or more accurate information, the importer must update the declared information as soon as possible, and no later than 24 hours before the arrival of the goods in the United States (or if the goods are loaded in a foreign port less than 24 hours before the arrival of the goods in the United States, the information must be updated when the goods are loaded in a port outside the United States).
If the goods are all foreign transit goods or re export goods, the importer must declare the following five items:
- (1) Booking agent
- (2) Foreign port of discharge
- (3) Place of delivery
- (4) Consignee
- (5) Harmonized Tariff System numbering
The last rule requires shipping companies to provide the following information:
- (1) Cargo ship loading position
- (2) Container condition
Import insurance (BOND)
Import insurance (BOND) is implemented by FMC (Federal Maritime Council) and the U.S. Maritime Commission. The beneficiary is the U.S. government and the U.S. Customs. When the importer does not pick up the goods and does not pay any fees for any reason, the U.S. Customs can claim compensation from the insurance company to pay the costs of the goods in the U.S. except for the goods sold late Taxes, etc.). If you don’t buy import insurance, it means that you don’t put it on record in the U.S. Customs. Even if you send ISF, you can’t clear the customs in the U.S. and such goods will be rejected or even fined by the Customs upon arrival. According to U.S. Customs regulations, the purpose of import insurance is to ensure the fulfillment of obligations stipulated by laws and regulations. The main purpose is to ensure the payment of import duties and taxes, as well as to ensure the compliance with the laws and regulations on the customs clearance management of all U.S. imports. The user of import insurance shall agree to the following terms:
- (1) Agree to pay duties, taxes and related fees in a timely manner.
- (2) Agree to provide documents and certificates.
- (3) Agree to transport the goods.
- (4) Agree to rectify any non-compliance.
- (5) Agree to inspect the goods.
Goods exported to the United States can be cleared either in the name of the U.S. receiving party or in the name of the Chinese forwarder.
(1) Customs clearance in the name of the U.S. receiving party.
- (1) If the customs clearance is handled by the freight forwarder, the US consignees should not only provide their import insurance, but also sign a power of attorney (POA) with the customs broker designated by the freight forwarder. These matters should be completed two working days before the ISF sending deadline. The Chinese freight forwarder should ask the Chinese supplier for a complete 10 + 2 form and send the ISF to the US freight forwarder;
- (2) If the customs clearance is conducted by the customs broker of the US consignees, the Chinese forwarder shall timely provide the form 10 + 2 to the relevant person (Chinese supplier or US forwarder) and transfer it to the US consignees for sending ISF.
(2) For customs clearance in the name of Chinese freight forwarder, the US customs broker designated by US freight forwarder is usually used. The following documents shall be provided and sent to ISF by US freight forwarder:
- (1) Power of attorney (POA): each U.S. customs broker has its own header format, which must be signed to authorize them to handle customs clearance;
- (2) Provide China’s “business license” (or “legal person certificate”, “industrial and commercial license”, etc.) to prove its legitimacy;
- (3) Registration tax number taxno. (as long as you report for customs clearance, you can see several tax numbers from cbpform 7501 (entry summary): importer record of No.: if the importer has regular import business, he will apply for the importer registration number from the U.S. government. Most customers of this type have the right to declare ISF, and basically do not need to entrust the forwarder to declare ISF. Company tax number (irsno.): some companies only do some import business occasionally, and have no importer registration number, so they need to entrust freight forwarders to declare ISF. This number is displayed as consignee No. on CBP form 7501 (entry summary): the format is 12-123456789, with the first two digits and the last seven or nine digits. If there are only seven digits, the last two digits are 00 by default.
Relevant certification system in the United States
UL certification in the United States
UL (under writers Laboratories Inc.) is the most authoritative and large private organization in the world engaged in safety testing and identification. UL certification is a non mandatory certification in the United States, mainly in the detection and certification of product safety performance. Its certification scope does not include EMC EMC characteristics of the products. UL certification mainly uses scientific test methods to detect whether various materials, products, equipment, buildings and other materials have harm and harm to human life, property, environmental pollution, product recyclability, etc. UL certification can be in line with some large international accreditation qualifications such as RoHS of EU and SAA certification in Australia.
It mainly uses parts and components used in finished product assembly plant or other component factory, such as plastic, capacitance, printed circuit board, complex high-tech parts and industrial control parts. UL parts certification can prove that parts meet the applicable regulations and regulations by objective methods, and help suppliers create additional value, and can help shorten the time of listing of products using UL approved parts.
FCC certification in the United States
FCC is the abbreviation of federalcommunicationcommission. FCC certification is mandatory certification of EMC EMC characteristics in the United States. Many radio applications, communication products and digital products using rare earth permanent magnet materials need FCC approval if they enter the U.S. market. FCC certification is also known as the Federal Communications certification of the United States, including computers, fax machines, electronic devices, radio reception and transmission equipment, radio remote control toys, telephone, personal computers and other products that may harm personal safety. If these products are to be exported to the United States, they must be tested and approved by government authorized laboratories in accordance with FCC technical standards. Importers and customs agents are required to declare that each radio frequency device complies with FCC standards, i.e. FCC licenses.
CSA certification in Canada
CSA is a short name for Canadian Standards Association, founded in 1919, and is the first non-profit organization in Canada to set industrial standards. Currently, CSA is the largest security certification agency in Canada and one of the most famous security certification institutions in the world. It can provide safety certification for all kinds of products in machinery, building materials, electrical appliances, computer equipment, office equipment, environmental protection, medical fire safety, sports and entertainment.
The products sold in North America market such as electronics and electrical appliances need to obtain safety certification, and those products with CSA certification can also enter the U.S. market (with the csainternational mark of us or NRTL, indicating that the products meet the applicable standards of the United States and can enter the U.S. market). CSA marking is one of the most famous product safety recognition marks in the world. Even if it is not enforced, many manufacturers in many regions use the sign as an important basis for customers to recommend the safety of their products. Many buyers even specify to purchase products with CSA label attached. The situation that manufacturers are designated by Canadian importers or buyers to obtain CSA marks is increasing.
Precautions for export of rare earth permanent magnet materials to EU countries
Precautions for goods arriving at EU customs border
After the goods arrive at the EU port, the carrier or its agent who carries the goods to the EU or the carrier responsible for the transportation of the goods after the arrival shall report that the customs goods have arrived at the port within 3 hours (if the report is the customs off duty time, the report shall be reported to the Customs within the first hour after the customs work).
Declaration of entry of transport vehicles
The carrier who carries the goods to the EU, the carrier, the shipping company, the airline, the land transportation company or its agent responsible for the transportation of the goods after the arrival shall report the entry of the means of transport to the Customs within 24 hours after the arrival report is issued. The declaration of the entry of the means of transport can be combined with the arrival report. The transportation entry declaration shall be in form c1600. If some commercial documents or computer records contain the necessary information in form c1600, customs may accept the declaration with the above commercial documents or computer records. The following are acceptable commercial documents and records:
- (1) Sea bill of lading
- (2) Air waybill
- (3) Container manifest
- (4) Loading order
- (5) Shipment record (shipment record in computer inventory system)
To declare with commercial documents and records, please contact the Customs at the place of discharge to ask the customs about the commercial documents and records acceptable to the customs.
If the goods have been transported under the “EC transit procedure” or “common transit procedures”, copies of the transit documents retained by the customs of the destination can be used for the declaration of the entry of means of transport. The manifest used by air or sea cargo under the “simplified transit procedures of the European Community” can also be used for the entry declaration of means of transport.
No unloading is allowed without Customs permission (in case of emergency, goods can be unloaded without Customs permission for safety reasons, but the goods shall be reported to the customs immediately after unloading). When the customs require unloading for inspection, it must be unloaded.
After the goods have been approved to enter the port, they will enter the temporary storage area designated by the Customs (the sea freight shall not exceed 45 days and other goods shall not exceed 20 days), and shall not be transported (outside the normal handling for the purpose of preserving the goods), open or inspected without the Customs permission, until the approval of the customs can be handled or used as follows, otherwise, it may be fined or investigated for criminal responsibility:
- (1) Free circulation after release
- (2) Transit
- (3) Enter the customs supervision area and wait for customs approval for other purposes
- (4) Processing trade
- (5) Temporary entry
- (6) Enter bonded area or bonded warehouse
EU import declaration
Form of customs declaration
If you want to obtain permission from the customs authorities to handle or use the goods, you must submit the “single administrative document” (SAD) to the customs. According to the EC customs code and EC regulation 2454 / 93, all EU Member States should use the “EU unified declaration form” for customs declaration“ The first to the third copies are used by the exporting country, and the fourth to the eighth copies follow the goods. No matter the electronic declaration form or the paper declaration form, after the customs accepts the declaration, it will issue a unique declaration number to the declarant in the form of three port code, six number (including 0), one letter and six acceptance date. Example: 120 – 112034b 190302.
- (1) Electronic declaration: 99% of the EU unified declaration forms are submitted to the customs electronically (each member country has its own customs clearance system). If the computer system of the importer or his agent is compatible with the customs clearance system, the importer or his agent can directly enter the required information (called direct trader input, DTI) into the customs clearance system after obtaining the Customs approval, and then the customs clearance system will automatically generate the electronic declaration form. The customs declaration form automatically generated by computer can greatly speed up the process of customs clearance. Some enterprises can even inform the customs authorities to enter the enterprise computer system to directly obtain the information of the declaration form entered by the enterprise in their own computer system without having to submit the declaration form. After the customs approves the import, it will issue the import and entry permit to the importer or his agent.
- (2) Paper declaration: in individual cases, enterprises can submit paper declaration form in designated Customs office area. The customs will input the declaration information into the customs clearance system. After the customs approves the import, it will directly stamp on the customs declaration form and issue the import and entry permit.
According to EU law, the customs broker should be a permanent resident of the EU or a company with a permanent place of business or registered office in the EU. However, in case of transit declaration, provisional import declaration, or only occasionally declaration of imported goods as a declarant (no regular import activities), this restriction is not applicable.
The “EU uniform declaration form” may be submitted by the importer or his agent to the customs authorities. There are two forms of agency
- (1) Direct agent: the agent shall declare on behalf of the principal in the name of the principal (the principal shall be responsible for paying taxes).
- (2) Indirect agency: the agent shall declare on behalf of the principal in his own name (joint and several liability, both the principal and the agent are required to pay taxes).
Time limit for declaration and acceptance
The importer or his agent may declare the goods 4 days in advance of the arrival of the goods at the port (but the customs will only accept the declaration after the arrival of the goods), or within 14 days after the arrival of the goods at the port. After the declaration of the enterprise, the Customs approval procedures for the enterprise to handle or use the goods shall generally be completed within the following time limit:
- (1) Within 45 days from the date of submission of the entry declaration of the means of transport (sea freight);
- (2) Within 20 days from the date of submission of import declaration of means of transport (non marine goods).
It may include “EU uniform customs declaration”, supplier’s invoice, contract, bill of lading, waybill, loading note, packing list, insurance certificate, bank draft, if necessary, weight certificate, quota certificate, certificate of origin (or declaration of origin on invoice of exporting country or other commercial documents), ATR certificate of goods circulation (only for zero tariff goods in Turkey), etc Commodity inspection certificate, temporary import certificate, certificate required for specific tax reduction or exemption, approval document, import goods license, etc.
At the time of declaration, the importer or his agent shall classify the goods according to the tax rules of the importing country. It is very important to determine the correct commodity code and customs procedure code, and it is possible to be fined for misclassification. When entering or filling in the declaration form, if it is difficult to determine the commodity code, you can contact the tariff and Statistical Office (TSO). The office will issue a binding tariff information (BTI) with legal effect free of charge to determine the commodity code. The opinion is valid for six years from the date of issue.
EU certification system
CE (compact European ene), a safety certification mark, is regarded as a passport for manufacturers to open and enter the European market. All products with CE mark can be sold in European member countries without meeting the requirements of each member country, thus realizing the free circulation of goods within the scope of EU member countries. In the EU market, CE mark is a compulsory certification. If products produced by enterprises within the EU or products from other countries want to circulate freely in the EU market, they must be labeled with CE mark to show that the products comply with the basic requirements of the EU new method for technical coordination and standardization, which is a compulsory requirement of the EU law.
The restriction of the use of hazardous substances in electronic and electronic equipment is the full name of RoHS, which is also called 2002 / 95 / EC Directive.
On June 4, 2015, the European Union published regulation (EU) no2015 / 863 in its official journal OJ, which expanded the restricted substances in Annex II of rohs2.0 (i.e. directive 2011 / 65 / EU) from the original lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers to the following 10 items: lead (PB), mercury (Hg), cadmium (CD), hexavalent chromium (Cr6 +), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) Dihexyl (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), toluene butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were synthesized.
The full name of GS is geprufte Sicherheit, which is authorized by the German Ministry of labor Ü 5. The GS mark is the safety certification mark issued by VDE and other organizations, which is accepted by the majority of European customers. Generally, the sales unit price of GS certification products is higher and more popular.
GS certification has strict requirements on the quality assurance system of the factory, which requires the factory to conduct review and annual inspection: the factory is required to establish its own quality assurance system according to the ISO9000 system standard when it ships in batches. The factory should at least have its own quality control system, quality records and other documents, and sufficient production and inspection capacity; Before the GS certificate is issued, the new factory should be reviewed, and the GS certificate can only be issued if it is qualified; After the certificate is issued, the factory shall be reviewed at least once a year. No matter how many TUV marks the factory applies for, the factory only needs one review.
The full name of VDE is VDE testing and Certification Institute, i.e. German Electrical Engineers Association. It is one of the most experienced testing certification and inspection institutions in Europe. As an internationally recognized safety testing and certification agency for electronic appliances and their components, VDE enjoys a high reputation in Europe and even in the world. Its products include household and commercial electrical appliances, it equipment, industrial and medical technology equipment, assembly materials and electronic components, wires and cables, etc.
EU REACH certification
Reach is the abbreviation of regulation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals. It is a chemical regulatory system established and implemented by the European Union on June 1, 2007. This is a proposed regulation on the safety of production, trade and use of chemicals. The regulation aims to protect human health and environmental safety, maintain and improve the competitiveness of EU chemical industry, and develop innocuous and innocuous compounds. Reach requires that all chemicals imported and produced in Europe must go through a set of comprehensive procedures, such as registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction, so as to better and more simply identify the chemical components and achieve the purpose of ensuring environmental and human safety. The directive mainly includes registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction.
In addition to having a direct impact on chemical enterprises, reach will have an impact on all enterprises producing chemical downstream products, including textile, electromechanical, toys, furniture, etc., involving more than 1 million kinds of products. Any commodity must have a registration file listing the chemical components, and explain how the manufacturer uses these chemical components and the toxicity assessment report. All information will be entered into the European Chemicals Agency for management.
Precautions for export of rare earth permanent magnet materials to Japan
Precautions for import of Japanese customs
Any individual interested in importing goods shall declare to the Customs Commissioner, obtain import license (after inspection by relevant departments), and pay customs duties and consumption tax. Almost all of the clearance issues originate from the first application. When there is a problem, the staff of the Japanese customs will explain the relevant procedures and regulations, which will help in general. It is necessary to hire import agents or customs economic personnel to assist in customs clearance. All importers must declare to the Japanese customs. For most goods, the declaration shall be made after the goods have been moved into the bonded area (hozei) or other designated area; For goods requiring special approval from the customs officer, the declaration should be conducted before the goods enter the bonded area. The declaration materials shall include the quantity, value of the goods and invoices, packing lists, freight schedules, insurance certificates, certificates of origin (e.g. where preferential rates apply). Other materials that may be required include, for example, import permits or health certificates. Once the submitted materials have been verified by customs, the import license will be issued. The value of import transactions is calculated based on the cost, insurance and freight of the goods. Tariffs can be done through a network system that includes multiple payment methods, which connects the cashier (government authorized) and financial institutions. The government has no charge for the use of the system, but the relevant financial institutions may charge different fees. The system is managed by Japan multi payment network management organization (jammo), and as a non-profit organization, jammo is established by the major financial institutions in Japan.
This system can only be used after jammo is added. Ammo will provide written pre ruling requirements after the importer and other interested parties send a written application. With the consent of the applicant, the ruling request may be published on the customs website. More information can be found through the AEO project.
Import permits are usually issued two or three days before the arrival of the goods by sea and the day before the arrival of air cargo (including the time required by the import permit system immediately after entry). However, for compliance with the import licensing system after entry, import permits may be issued after the goods are determined to enter the country. To meet the requirements of this Permit, the importer must submit a temporary declaration online (via NAccS) online before the goods enter the country and provide the results of the goods inspection.
Complaints against the Japanese customs ruling may be submitted to the customs officer within two months of the date of the decision. Complaints about the results of customs clearance ruling can be submitted to the Ministry of finance of Japan.
Specific requirements for customs clearance
Any person who intends to import goods shall declare to the customs officer of Japan, and the import license can only be obtained after the relevant imported goods have been inspected and inspected. Customs clearance procedures shall start from the submission of import declaration, after necessary inspection and payment of customs duties and consumption tax, until the import license is issued. In the process, the customs will take measures to ensure that the import process meets the requirements of foreign exchange management and other provisions on the import of related goods.
The following is the basic process of import declaration. More than 90 percent of the import process is processed by computers.
(1) Complete and submit customs declaration
Customs declaration requires the submission of import (tariff payment) declaration form, stating the quantity and value of goods and other matters to be specified.
Generally speaking, the import declaration should be initiated when the goods are moved into the income zone (hozei) or other designated area. However, for goods requiring special approval from the customs officer, the declaration shall commence before the goods are transported to the cargo ship, barge or into the zone of hezei.
In principle, the declaration shall be made by the importer of the goods. Usually, the customs declaration form is filled out by the customs broker as the import agent.
(3) Documents to be submitted (Customs Law, Article 68)
The customs declaration form (c-5020) of import (tariff payment) in triplicate and the following documents:
- Bill of lading or air waybill
- Certificate of origin (applicable to WTO exchange rate)
- GSP and certificate of origin (applicable to WTO exchange rate)
- Packing list, freight schedule, insurance certificate, etc. (required)
- Licenses, certificates, etc. required by other laws and regulations, except for Customs Law (when the imported goods are subject to the restrictions of such laws and regulations)
- Detailed description of tariff and Excise exemption (when the goods are applicable to tariff relief)
- Duty payment voucher (when duty is payable on goods)
In principle, customs will only require other necessary documents that will help to determine the consideration of granting import permits. When import restricted goods are required, importers must obtain import licenses (hereinafter referred to as “permits”) through the review and other requirements of the relevant laws that list the goods as “restricted”.
Therefore, when the import goods need permission from other laws and regulations except Customs Law, the documents required by the laws and regulations must be submitted at the same time.
Relevant laws and regulations (Article 70 of Customs Law)
(1) Foreign exchange and foreign trade control law (2) laws and regulations on Prohibition of category goods: wildlife protection and hunting laws:
- Law on the control of sword snatching and holding
- Law on the administration of toxic and harmful substances
- Pharmaceutical law
- Fertilizer management law
- Stable sugar price correlation method
- Explosive management law
- Chemical substances screening method, chemical substance production regulation, etc
- High pressure gas safety method
Relevant certification system in Japan
PSE certification is a mandatory safety certification in Japan to prove that the motor and electronic products have passed the safety standard test of Japanese electrical and raw material safety law (denanlaw) or international IEC standard. According to the national law of Japan (electric device and material control law), 498 products must pass safety certification when entering the Japanese market. Among them, 165 class a products shall obtain diamond shaped PSE mark and 333 class B products shall obtain round PSE mark.
Chinese manufacturers should first determine whether the products they apply for are within the scope of the certification that CQC has been authorized to accept. Since the authorization obtained by CQC is based on technical benchmark 2, the manufacturer must select technical benchmark 2 to apply for PSE certification. After confirmation, the manufacturer can submit a written application to CQC and submit the samples and technical data to the PSE certification laboratory for type test. Since China and Japan are both members of IECEE CB system, the test report can also be directly converted from CB report. After the test report is completed, the applicant shall provide the Japanese manual or assembly manual, product related structure and parts data, relevant data of testing equipment, factory quality inspection report (including 100% electrical strength test report of production line, operation inspection record, etc.) and receive factory inspection arranged by CQC. The PSE certification certificate can be obtained through factory inspection.
JIS is the abbreviation of Japanese industrial standards, and is the most important and authoritative standard in Japanese national standards. JISC has formulated and deliberated according to the Japanese industrial standardization law to promote the national unification of Japanese industrial standardization, such as shape, quality, performance, production method and test method of industrial products.
JIS certification process includes the following five steps: certification application, product testing, factory review (as appropriate), certificate issuing, and marking JIS on the product. The certification authority will appoint auditors to the factory to review their quality system. In order to maintain the validity of JIS mark certificate, it is necessary to review every three years later. The audit contents include new product test and change audit. From application for certification to the issuance of certificates, the normal processing period is 6-9 months, and the work cycle will be extended if the non-compliance is not in accordance with the regulations.
Precautions for export to South Korea
All goods in South Korea are free to import except rice. The Korean government has formulated a series of regulations and requirements for the import of some commodities, including registration requirements, standards, safety and performance testing requirements, to ensure public health, health, national safety and environmental safety. Generally, the local Korean institutions approved by the supplier shall handle the relevant registration procedures.
South Korea also maintains an import declaration system, which allows goods to enter customs once they accept an import declaration without problems. For high-risk goods related to public health and health, national safety and the environment, additional documentation is usually required and technical inspection is required. For importers without violation records, once the system accepts the import declaration, the system allows the goods to pass the customs clearance, and does not need to pass the customs inspection. EDI (electronic data exchange) paperless import customs clearance system allows importers to declare import through the network, without having to go to the customs hall.
Before the goods arrive at the port or enter the bonded area, import declaration can be made in the customs hall. If the goods are declared through import, the goods can be released directly at the port without entering the bonded area.
Customs clearance process
Import goods are stored in bonded area – the owner of goods prepares relevant documents for import declaration – the customs declaration bank fills in the declaration form and enters the customs system – Customs conducts declaration processing – the owner of the goods pays the security deposit or pays the tax in advance – passes the declaration – the goods release – the owner of the goods pays the tax after the customs clearance (within 15 days after obtaining the clearance permit).
The exporter can understand the detailed requirements of the cargo documents through the importing party. It usually includes:
Basic documents: import declaration (submitted through EDI system or network).
Other documents: including commercial invoice, original invoice and two copies, and freight document, including the total value of goods, unit price, quantity, mark, brief description of goods and documents of freight transportation; Packing list, pick-up list, certificate of origin, quarantine certificate, etc.
Inspection and treatment of imported goods
Goods screening: Based on risk management technology and cargo data analysis, inspection is carried out;
Inspection purpose: to ensure the accuracy of import declaration, such as description, quantity, country of origin, trademark, etc;
Inspection cost: borne by the owner of the goods;
Inspection method: full inspection or partial inspection, or component analysis by customs laboratory, and technical equipment;
Management measures for illegal import goods: correct the error of customs declaration, fine or bring lawsuit.
Acceptance of application
For goods without any problems after import inspection and document verification, the customs head shall accept the import declaration, but if there are the following conditions, the declaration will be corrected or customs clearance will be stopped:
- The declaration form lacks necessary information;
- The declaration form lacks additional information or supplement other necessary supporting documents;
- Customs clearance withholding documents require that simple customs declaration be changed to ordinary customs clearance;
- The supplementary matters for import, export and export to domestic sales declaration according to Article 241 or 244 of the Customs Law;
- Documents to be submitted in addition to the provisions of article 245 of the Customs Law;
- Failing to fulfill the obligations stipulated in the Customs Law, or may bring public health hazards;
- Necessary safety inspections as provided for in paragraph 1, section 246-3 of the Customs Law;
- If the importer defaults on the tax and according to Article 30-2 of the national tax law, the act shall be determined by the person in charge of the customs;
- The importer is prosecuted or investigated for violating the relevant provisions of the customs duties;
- According to article 230- of the Customs Law, the quality identification of imported goods is wrong;
- Prepare customs clearance procedures to be overdue according to other customs clearance requirements.
After the declaration is passed, the importer can pay taxes, including duties. In principle, a well-known transaction enjoys certain benefits, such as tax payment after customs clearance. After the completion of the import declaration, the import declaration certificate can be obtained. The import declaration certificate can be tampered and forged through various methods, such as: special customs seal, watermark (Korean customs service badge), serial number, two-dimensional barcode, and “duplicate” mark.
The origin of the goods entering Korea shall be indicated on the trademark. KCs passes the unified system code number（ http://portal.customs.go.kr/kcsipt/sso/login.jsp ）A series of origin identification requirements have been issued.
Release of goods
After the import declaration permission is confirmed, the goods can be released from the bonded warehouse or bonded area. If urgent need goods such as raw materials for production, can be released before obtaining import declaration.
Goods to be checked and cleared by the customs
Whether the customs clearance requirements or other relevant laws are met, the customs head will check such goods. Such goods may be inquired in accordance with the guidelines for goods specified in article 226 of the Customs Law on customs clearance requirements and confirmation methods.
Relevant certification system in Korea
KC (Korea certification), formerly known as EK certification, is a Korean electronic and electrical equipment safety certification system, namely, KC mark certification. It is a compulsory safety certification system implemented by Korea testing laboratory (Kats) in accordance with the electric appliance safety control law (January 1, 2009). To avoid repeated certification, from July 1, 2012, EMC and safety have separated management. For electronic and electrical products applying for Korean certification, KC certificate and KCC Certificate (New MSIP) must be obtained respectively for safety and EMC requirements. KC certification institutions have 2 qualification institutions: KTC, Korea testing certification, Korea Industrial Technology Institute. The two are not only KC’s certification agencies, but also qualification testing laboratories.
In terms of safety standards, all products entering the Korean market shall meet the Korean security standard k (similar to IEC standard), and the requirements of Korea must be met when using IEC standards. National differences can be found in the announcement in CB system of IECEE. For EMC, the standards of Korea EMI are similar to CISPR standards, and EMS standards are similar to EN standards.
According to the requirements of the new electrical appliance safety management law and the different product hazard levels, KC certification is divided into mandatory safety certification, self-discipline safety certification and supplier self-determination. Among them, the product risk of mandatory safety certification control is higher, and the product risk controlled by the supplier self-determination is lower.
KCC is a compulsory certification for t-information, telecommunication and RF RF products in Korean market, including EMC test, telecommunication test and radio frequency test. The Korean radio and Communication Commission authorized the Korean radio Institute (RRA) to be the KCC issuing agency. Since January 1, 2011, the original KCC identification in South Korea will be unified – converted to KC, so the KCC certification and KC certification adopt the same authentication identification, the difference is that kccid number will be under the identification of KCC certification. Since July 1, 2018, MSIP applications can only start with R, but the certificate that was previously applied with an ID beginning with “MSIP” is still valid.
The Korean National Institute of electromagnetic wave (RRA) issued a notice of revision on December 5, 2017. The KC certification application for emcid in South Korea can start with MSIP or R. Korean KC certification – the beginning number of EMC certificate will change “MSIP” into “R”, and the EMC certificate number – 14 digits in total. The “underline” that cannot be used in the certificate number before the change can be used, and the letter of size and English can be used in the certificate number.
Suggestions to meet the technical requirements of the target market
At present, most of the target markets of rare earth permanent magnet products are developed countries, and their consumption of rare earth permanent magnet materials is mainly used to produce high-end products. Due to the high level of Applied Technology in developed countries and the rapid development of high-tech industries, the consumption level is also rising. For example, in terms of product performance, supply quality, processing methods, application innovation, environmental protection and other technologies, the requirements are higher and higher. At the same time, China’s export of rare earth permanent magnet materials is restricted by patents. At present, Japan has most of the core patents of rare earth permanent magnet materials in the world. Japanese enterprises carry out large-scale patent cross licensing in the world by virtue of their patent technology, and carry out strict patent protection for themselves. At the same time, they build patent barriers for Chinese rare earth permanent magnet enterprises. Since 1983, Hitachi Metal Co., Ltd. has applied for 1113 rare earth permanent magnet patents, among which 158 have entered China. The products of Chinese rare earth permanent magnet enterprises without Hitachi metal patent authorization cannot be exported to the United States and other designated countries. China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should not only meet the corresponding technical requirements of the target market, but also pay attention to protecting the business interests and trade secrets of the enterprises, and pay close attention to and avoid the restriction of patents.
(1) Business alliance of rare earth permanent magnet materials was established among enterprises
In order to reverse the situation that China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises are at a disadvantage in the international trade negotiations, the rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should unite to establish a permanent magnet material business alliance, prevent foreign enterprises from malicious price reduction, eliminate malicious bidding among production enterprises, and protect the commercial interests of China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises. In addition, we can also establish organizations similar to the “rare earth permanent magnet industry technology innovation strategic alliance” to jointly deal with intellectual property disputes, absorb other large-scale rare earth permanent magnet enterprises in China who have obtained patent authorization and rare earth permanent magnet enterprises which cannot normally export due to Japanese rare earth patent barriers, and establish a special rare earth permanent magnet industry technology innovation strategic alliance in China. Hire professional technical personnel to analyze and audit the irrationality of Japanese rare earth permanent magnet patent, start with binding the process patent of expired composition patent, and disintegrate the other party’s whole process patent. At the same time, we should be prepared to fight a long-term patent lawsuit, and employ a famous Chinese law firm with rich anti-monopoly experience to launch anti-monopoly measures against Japanese rare earth enterprises.
(2) Strengthening scientific and technological innovation in Enterprises
Domestic rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should increase investment in scientific and technological innovation, pay attention to the cultivation of scientific and technological talents, strive to develop new technologies and actively try to put them into production, so as to change the situation that the core technology is restricted by developed countries. In terms of product composition, efforts should be made to reduce the consumption of high-value medium and heavy rare earth elements such as Terbium and dysprosium on the basis of ensuring magnetic properties, and try to replace them with relatively economical light rare earth elements; In terms of process design, optimize the process flow, improve the primary utilization rate of rare earth permanent magnet material blank, reduce the waste generated by cutting, and avoid the waste of resources and energy.
(3) Enhance the awareness of intellectual property protection, patent globalization layout
In order to avoid unnecessary disputes and losses, China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should raise awareness of patent protection, pay systematic attention to patent issues, and understand relevant laws and regulations such as international intellectual property rights, patent infringement litigation and patent monopoly. At the same time, China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should speed up the research and development of independent intellectual property technology, strengthen the layout of overseas patents, and provide protection for product export trade. Before the materials are exported to the destination country, the necessary patent search and analysis should be carried out, that is, whether the products themselves use the patents of other countries and whether the patents with independent property rights have been granted patents in the importing country, so as to minimize the risk of patent litigation. In view of the fact that it takes several years from patent application to authorization, rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should apply for corresponding patents as soon as possible according to their current scientific research and innovation and R & D direction. In this way, we can not only have the opportunity to avoid the patent infringement of other countries’ enterprises, but also enhance our competitiveness in the industry through patents. For rare earth permanent magnet enterprises with less experience in patent layout, they should actively establish cooperative relationship with professional patent service agencies and listen to suggestions that are conducive to protecting their own intellectual property rights and interests.
(4) Enterprises actively participate in the process of making and revising international standards
It is suggested that Chinese enterprises related to rare earth permanent magnet materials actively participate in the formulation of international standards, put forward opinions and suggestions, embody the technical requirements of Chinese enterprises in international standards, and establish regular technical communication channels with international peers to understand the latest international common technology and market demand. Carry out international trade according to international standard rules. At the same time, countries with serious patent barriers should integrate their patent technology into the standards to prevent the deformation and invasion of patents.
To sum up, China’s rare earth permanent magnet material industry occupies a leading position in the world, and has absolute advantages in output and export volume. Further development and production of high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials is still the next development goal of China’s rare earth industry. From the perspective of trading partners, developed countries such as Europe, the United States, Japan and South Korea are still the main exporters of rare earth permanent magnet materials. Among them, sales in Germany and Japan have increased significantly, reflecting a strong consumption potential, and are expected to be the main exporters in the future. From the comparison of domestic and international standards of rare earth permanent magnet materials, Chinese standards have certain advantages compared with international standards. First of all, China has surpassed international standards in terms of the number of standards, and has specific and detailed standard system support for all kinds of rare earth permanent magnet materials. Moreover, the brand setting of rare earth permanent magnet materials in China is far more than that of international standards, and the setting of technical parameters in China has basically covered and exceeded the scope of international standards, and there are more comprehensive technical requirements in the dimension deviation, chemical composition content and other aspects. It can be seen that with the rapid progress of China’s rare earth permanent magnet technology in the past ten years, China’s product quality has reached the world’s leading level, and the national standard level has been revised many times, changing the situation that it lagged behind the international standard many years ago. In terms of supporting methods and standards, China’s standard system is more complete. A certain number of rare earth permanent magnet material characteristic analysis methods and standards have been developed, and corresponding detection methods have been proposed for waste materials, which is in line with the trend of resource recycling. However, there are some defects in the Chinese standard. For example, there is no specific magnetic property requirement for 1:5 samarium cobalt permanent magnet material, which needs further standardization. Through the analysis, China should give full play to the advantages of relatively mature industry, technology and standardization, take China’s current standard system as the blueprint, and timely put forward international standard proposals.
In terms of patents, China’s rare earth permanent magnet industry is still restricted by foreign patents, and it still has to pay high patent fees every year while its export is restricted. Although China’s patent system has been gradually improved, it still faces some practical difficulties. The concept and concept of patent protection of rare earth permanent magnet enterprises need to be improved. In the next step, China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should form a joint force, improve the level of scientific research and intellectual property construction, increase investment in overseas patent layout, and strive to reverse the situation and take the initiative in the field of intellectual property.
Rare earth permanent magnet materials are functional materials with great strategic value. China’s rare earth permanent magnet enterprises should establish corresponding business alliances, improve the level of scientific and technological innovation, take advantage of China’s rare earth raw materials and industrial advantages, improve product quality and scientific and technological content, increase product added value, and strive to occupy the market initiative, Expand the international influence of China’s rare earth permanent magnet industry and technology.
Source: China Permanent Magnet Manufacturer – www.rizinia.com