Diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials
When a material is placed in a magnetic field, the magnetic field force of the material’s electrons will be affected. This effect is called Magnetic Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Materials will react differently to external magnetic fields. This reaction is dependent on many factors, such as the atomic and molecular structure of the material, and the net magnetic field associated with the atoms. There are three sources of magnetic moments associated with atoms. The movement of these electrons causes a change in the movement of the external magnetic field and the spin of the electron.
In most atoms, electrons appear in pairs. A pair of spins of an electron in opposite directions. In this way, when electrons are paired together, their relative rotation causes their magnetic fields to cancel each other. Therefore, no net magnetic field exists. Materials with some unpaired electrons will have a net magnetic field and will react more towards an external magnetic field. Most materials can be classified as diamagnetic, paramagnetic or ferromagnetic materials.
The magnetized magnetism is opposite to the original magnetic field. When the external magnetic field is removed, the diamagnetic material does not retain the magnetic properties. In diamagnetic materials, all electrons are paired so each atom has no permanent net magnetic moment. The diamagnetic characteristics are re-adjusted under the influence of the external magnetic field of the electron path. Diamagnetic materials include copper, silver and gold, which are diamagnetic.
The magnetization after magnetization is in the same direction as the original magnetic field. These materials are slightly attracted by the magnetic field. When the external magnetic field is removed, the paramagnetic material does not retain magnetic properties. The paramagnetic properties are attributed to the existence of some unpaired electrons and the rearrangement of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials include magnesium, molybdenum, lithium and tantalum.
Anything that can be magnetized can be called a ferromagnetic substance. Ferromagnetic materials exhibit a strong attractive magnetic field and are able to retain their magnetic properties after the external field has been removed. Ferromagnetic materials have a certain amount of unpaired electrons, so their atoms have a net magnetic moment. Due to the existence of magnetic domains, it exhibits strong magnetic properties to the outside. Iron, nickel and cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic materials.
The basic magnet principle is set based on these three materials.